Lit Review (in progress)

Pedagogy (also courses that are currently offered)

Fire in the Hole: Curricular Explosion, Fearless Journalism Pedagogy and Media Convergence. Michael Longinow. Fall 2011 Symposium.
This presentation explores what we know and don't know about how young people are consuming media and how it informs how educators need to teach journalism. What are people looking for in the "news" they consume and why?  Does imagery trump text? Where does context fit? Convergent media, meaning media that includes text video and sound, is ascendant. Also explored: how do you teach news judgment in an environment where context is in some cases non-existent.

Multimedia Journalism Professors on an Island: Resources, Support Lacking at Small Programs
Elia Powers & Jacqueline Soteropoulos Incollingo Vol. 6 no. 1 pp-1.17 Winter 2016
Calls are increasing to "blow up" journalism curriculum to more rapidly embrace the teaching of social media, web media skills. Research study reached out to multimedia journalism university professors to discuss their goals for their students, the challenges they face and the support and resources they receive from their institutions.

A Review and Model of Journalism in an Age of Mobile Media
Oscar Westlund
Explores systemic changes the mass media has gone through to try and embrace digital media and make it more accessible for people using mobile devices. Can be interesting to explore the way content is created and distributed as well as potential concerns about necessary context.

Citizen Journalism vs. Professional Journalism
News, Public Affairs and the Public Sphere in a Digital Nation
Edgar Simpson. Lexington Books. August 2014
Discusses many aspects of where the two types of journalism collide including the lanes they fill, the legal responsibilites of traditional journalists and citizen journalists.  Explores the legal protections for journalists as well and the holes in current law that don't cover the digital actor (p141)

Do Mainstream News Outlets have a Moral Obligation to Citizen Journalists?
Glenda Cooper. Nieman Lab. July 15, 2015
Explores what responsibility the mainstream or traditional media has toward supporting or compensating people who are not employed by them but create content that is then used in the mass media.Also whether mass media should actively try to restrain citizen journalists from putting themselves in harm's way.

Ethics & Best Practices
Online Journalism Ethics. Cecilia Friend and Jane Singer. Taylor & Francis. 2007.
Over eight chapters Friend and Singer attempt to summarise how journalism ethics are being changed by the ways new media technologies are being used. They begin by highlighting the culturally-specific and indeed technologically-influenced nature of ethics – how that the emergence of objectivity as an idea, for instance, was derived in part from the development of the telegraph, while new media technologies are reshaping these ethics once again

Media Literacy: Citizen Journalists
Susan Moeller. Report from the Center for International Media Assistance. Oct. 1, 2009
Argues that citizen journalists must be educated about "best practices in standards and ethics." as well as "how to use new technologies". Recognizing that this was created in 2009, it is interesting to juxtapose it with professors' insistence that they can barely keep up with changing technology and certainly it can be argued that the citizen journalists themselves are far more educated on available technologies than the mass media that Moeller argues should be providing instruction.

Creating Ethical Bridges From Journalism to Digital News
Nieman Reports Sept. 17, 2009
Explores ethical issues that arise including authentication of sources, assessing the reliability of information and dealing with conflicts of interest. Granted this is a little old, but I believe many of the concerns are still present.

We're All Journalists Now: The Transformation of the Press and Reshaping of the Law in the Internet Age.  Scott Gant. New York. Free Press. 2007
I am concerned this source is a little old to draw relevant conclusions on where the law should fall when it comes to digital journalists. However, it provides a good overview of the questions raised by the unregulated flow of information that can end up informing our mainstream media.

Participatory Journalism Guarding Open Gates at Online Newspapers
Jane Singer (Book) Hoboken John Wiley & Sons.
Offers insights into how journalists in Western democracies are thinking about, and dealing with, the inclusion of content produced and published by the public. Interviews journalists to discuss how the news-making process.

Crowdsourcing in Investigative Journalism
Johanna Vehkoo (August 2013)
Includes a number of anecdotal examples of successful crowdsourcing from various countries. Points out incidents in Russia, Finland, the U.S. and references the work of NPR's Andy Carvin who used Twitter and crowdsourcing to separate fact from fiction during the Arab Spring.

This article looks at multiple cases of journalists using crowdsourcing to gather data, pointing out the pros and cons. Specifically, it explores the problem of what happens when so much information comes in from the web that the journalist is unable to independently verify it all.

Motivation Factors in Crowdsourced Journalism:Social Impact, Social Change, and Peer Learning
Tanja Aitamurto, Stanford University Vo..9 2015
Talks about the characteristics of crowdsourcing and differentiates it from other types of collaborative effort. Looks specifically at the motivations for the crowd participants, including recognition, enjoyment, acquiring news skills and knowledge, even financial motivations.

Hypertext, narrative and the future of news writing
Holly Cowart UTC Masters Thesis
Looks at how hypertext can be used as a narrative tool, how it plays with different audiences and whether or not hypertext compromises or supports text in which it is used. Also looks at the role it has in trying to support online newspapers and making them more relevant.

Future / Impact on Democracy????

Looking at Legal Issues for my Thesis

As part of this month's task for working on my thesis, I was trying to explore possible topics for the class I am proposing. One of those topics came to me in a most unexpected way last week. Following the revelations about women that say Donald Trump touched or kissed them inappropriately, I found myself in a conversation with Karen Desoto, an NBC News Analyst and defense attorney. Although not a pundit, she had an interesting take on the reports. In her opinion, they should have never been reported in the first place. Her argument was that the allegations coming out failed to meet what she believed should be the basic standard for reporting, which is whether the allegations would meet the legal standard for being admissible in court. In her opinion, allegations that were 20+ years old, that had not been verified or reported at the time, would never be admitted in court. Therefore, she thinks the New York Times (that is the case we were discussing) should have never reported it. In addition, she made the case that the editors of the paper should have known that the allegations would have a direct impact on the election less than a month off and that that should have played a role in them keeping the reports under wraps unless and until further verification came to light. I was intrigued?  Did she believe the writers at the New York Times failed to uphold their responsibilities as journalists? Yes, she said. Did we, at MSNBC, failed to uphold our responsibilities as journalists by reporting their reports?  Yes again, she believed. And she also felt that even citing the NYT didn't absolve us (a well-worn trick of journalists to pin the responsibility for stuff like this on someone else). Not only did the conversation pique my interest when it came to the legal and ethical responsibilities that come specifically with reporting events that we didn't actually see happen, but it raised questions to me about how those responsibilities should extend to citizen journalists - people blogging or posting things into the public. I asked Karen - do you believe they should have to adhere to the same standards?  Yes, she said - particularly since they have the potential to reach audiences at least as large as some TV networks.  Perhaps there should be some sort of threshold for the size of someone's online reach before opening the floodgates to potential libel litigation, but even those thresholds would be difficult to pin down. What if someone reports something when they have just a handful of followers, then the story picks up traction and they go over the arbitrary threshold set forth in our argument. Can they be sued or not? Essentially what we are asking here is: what are the standards for fact-checking and verification before its fair to report something about someone?  And once the "story" is in cyberspace, do we (either as journalists or citizen journalists or just citizens) take on legal or ethical responsibilities for the factual content of that story simply by retweeting it, or adding it to our blog?  Should we?  And should people who are putting original content online meet some sort of standard for their own content?  And if so, how should it be enforced? I think the legal/ethical questions about what Colbert used to call "truthiness" would be a key part of my thesis and an important topic that can be explored in my future class.